The ‘orchid-like’ bladderworts (Lentibulariaceae) family comprises fifteen species. These robust and mostly epiphytic species were originally grouped within the section Orchidioides and were later split into two sections clades: Orchidioides and Iperua.
Rodrigues et al. provides strong evidence based on DNA sequences and morphology to group the section Orchidioides into the section Iperua. Some morphological characters have appeared two or more times, sometimes being lost again in derivative taxa. The tubers, derivatives of the stolon, provide a valuable phylogenetic character, as well as being important adaptations for water storage: they have been derived from stolons at least twice in the phylogenetic history of ‘orchid-like’ bladderworts.
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Gomes Rodrigues, F., Franco Marulanda, N., Silva, S. R., Płachno, B. J., Adamec, L., & Miranda, V. F. O. (2017). Phylogeny of the “orchid-like” bladderworts (gen. Utricularia sect. Orchidioides and Iperua: Lentibulariaceae) with remarks on the stolon–tuber system. Annals of Botany, 120(5), 709–723. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcx056