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  • Respiratory CO2 production during grapevine bud burst.
    in

    Vascular patterning of superoxide in bursting grapevine buds

    Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. Meitha et al. investigate tissue oxygen […] More

  • Appearance of a pepper seedling at different stages of development (7, 10 and 14 d old). Three main organs are distinguishable after 10 d: radicle (embryonic root), hypocotyl (embryonic shoot) and green cotyledons.
    in

    Regulation of ROS and RNS in pepper seedlings

    The development of seedlings involves many morphological, physiological and biochemical processes, which are controlled by many factors. Some reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) are implicated as signal molecules in physiological and phytopathological processes. Airaki et al. report the differential regulation of ROS and NO metabolism, and of NADP-dehydrogenases, in the different […] More

  • Helianthus annuus
    in

    Redox changes, dormancy breaking and ageing of seeds

    Loss of seed viability has been associated with deteriorative processes that are partly caused by oxidative damage. The breaking of dormancy, a seed trait that prevents germination in unfavourable seasons, has also been associated with oxidative processes. It is neither clear how much overlap exists between these mechanisms nor is the specific roles played by […] More

  • Kiwi fruit
    in

    Sodium nitroprusside and ozone in kiwifruit ripening

    Despite their importance in many aspects of plant physiology, information about the function of oxidative and, particularly, of nitrosative signalling in fruit biology is limited. Tanou et al. study the ripening of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) and find that ozone treatment markedly delays fruit softening and depresses the ethylene biosynthetic mechanism. Pretreatment with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) […] More

  • Microscopic images of Brassica root tips stained with Schiff’s reagent.
    in

    Zinc stress and ROS and RNS metabolism of roots

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient naturally present in soils, but anthropogenic activities can lead to accumulation in the environment and resulting damage to plants. Heavy metals such as Zn can induce oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), which can reduce growth and yield in crop plants. […] More

  • Role of PsTrxo1 in TBY-2 cell death after treatment with 35 mM H2O2.
    in

    Over-expression of Trxo1 and cell viability under H2O2 stress

    Ortiz-Espín et al. treat over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells with H2O2 and find a significant delay in cell death compared to controls, which may in part be due to a decreased content of endogenous H2O2 in the over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and antioxidants are less extended after the oxidative treatment. More

  • Hierarchical clustering and heat map of ER stress-related genes in leaves treated with H2O2, Rot, MV, DCMU and 3-AT (average linkage and Euclidean distance as similarity measure).
    in

    Organelle-originated ROS and endoplasmic reticulum responses

    Ozgur et al. induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and find that relatively low concentrations of ROS are more effective for induction of the ER stress response, and that mitochondrial and chloroplastic ROS production have different induction mechanisms for the UPR and ER stress responses. More

  • Trifolium pratense
    in

    Role of polyphenol oxidase in oxidative stress in leaves

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) catalyse the oxidation of monophenols and/or o-diphenols to highly reactive o-quinones, which in turn interact with oxygen and proteins to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) and typical brown-pigmented complexes. Hence PPOs can affect local levels of oxygen and ROS. Although the currently known substrates are located in the vacuole, the enzyme is […] More

  • Arabidopsis
    in

    Vitamin E, phosphorus availability and longevity in arabidopsis

    Vitamin E helps to control the cellular redox state by reacting with singlet oxygen and preventing the propagation of lipid peroxidation in thylakoid membranes. Both plant ageing and phosphorus deficiency can trigger accumulation of reactive oxygen species, leading to damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Simancas and Munné-Bosch investigate how P availability and vitamin E interact […] More

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