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  • A diagram of the interaction
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    Cytosolic dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis responses to root-knot nematode infection

    Plant defence reaction is associated with activation of primary metabolic pathways. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the key enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP), pathway is involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses and pathogenesis. Hu et al. assess the role of G6PDH in regulating plant defence response during plant-nematode interaction. Root-knot nematode infection caused a […] More

  • A diagram of cell formation
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    Subsidiary cell formation in Poaceae stomatal complexes

    Polarisation and asymmetrical division generating the Poaceous subsidiary cells constitutes a very attractive model for the study of local intercellular stimulation. Auxin operates as an inductive stimulus while PIN auxin carriers and reactive oxygen species seem to facilitate signal transduction. Specific cell wall components and the SCAR/WAVE complex are emerging as the earliest polarization factors […] More

  • Tissue-specific expression of NPC2 by histochemical GUS reporter assay
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    Non-Specific Phospholipase C2 (NPC2) in plant immune responses in Arabidopsis

    The non-specific phospholipases C (NPC) are recently discovered new subclass of plant phospholipases. Most of them have not yet been characterised thoroughly. Krčková et al. prepare and purify Arabidopsis thaliana NPC2 in a heterologous system, and experimentally proved its phospholipase activity in vitro. Using lines overexpressing NPC2: GFP. They determine its endomembrane (preferentially Golgi apparatus) […] More

  • Schematic view of the proposed events associated with the replication and movement of TMV.
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    Modulation of host plant immunity by Tobamovirus proteins

    To establish infections, plant viruses effect profound alterations to host physiology that disturb endogenous processes and contribute to the development of disease symptoms. Conti et al. summarise recently described effects of Tobacco Mosaic Virus on host plant physiology. This review focuses upon the non-canonical roles of viral proteins that bring about the modulation of host […] More

  • Correlation between the expression ratio (flooded/unflooded) of ZmPgb1.1 and ZmPgb1.2 in relation to the ability of the genotypes to retain photosynthetic rates after 10 d of flooding.
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    Elevating expression of phytoglobins enhances photosynthetic response of root-flooded maize

    Decreased crop photosynthetic rates are a major consequence of root flooding as severe perturbations of the photosynthetic machinery result from elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phytoglobins (Pgbs) are ubiquitous proteins induced by several types of stress that affect plant response by modulating nitric oxide. Youssef et al. demonstrate that elevating the expression of […] More

  • Changes in hydrophobicity of 2-Cys Prx A and its mutants presented in terms of the fluorescence intensity of bis-ANS.
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    Regulation of peroxidase and molecular functions of 2-Cys PrxA

    The 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) A protein of Arabidopsis thaliana performs the dual functions of a peroxidase and a molecular chaperone depending on its conformation and the metabolic conditions. However, the precise mechanism responsible for the functional switching of 2-Cys Prx A is poorly known. Lee et al. generate mutants of 2-Cys Prx A by substituting […] More

  • Respiratory CO2 production during grapevine bud burst.
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    Vascular patterning of superoxide in bursting grapevine buds

    Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. Meitha et al. investigate tissue oxygen […] More

  • Appearance of a pepper seedling at different stages of development (7, 10 and 14 d old). Three main organs are distinguishable after 10 d: radicle (embryonic root), hypocotyl (embryonic shoot) and green cotyledons.
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    Regulation of ROS and RNS in pepper seedlings

    The development of seedlings involves many morphological, physiological and biochemical processes, which are controlled by many factors. Some reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) are implicated as signal molecules in physiological and phytopathological processes. Airaki et al. report the differential regulation of ROS and NO metabolism, and of NADP-dehydrogenases, in the different […] More

  • Helianthus annuus
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    Redox changes, dormancy breaking and ageing of seeds

    Loss of seed viability has been associated with deteriorative processes that are partly caused by oxidative damage. The breaking of dormancy, a seed trait that prevents germination in unfavourable seasons, has also been associated with oxidative processes. It is neither clear how much overlap exists between these mechanisms nor is the specific roles played by […] More

  • Kiwi fruit
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    Sodium nitroprusside and ozone in kiwifruit ripening

    Despite their importance in many aspects of plant physiology, information about the function of oxidative and, particularly, of nitrosative signalling in fruit biology is limited. Tanou et al. study the ripening of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) and find that ozone treatment markedly delays fruit softening and depresses the ethylene biosynthetic mechanism. Pretreatment with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) […] More

  • Microscopic images of Brassica root tips stained with Schiff’s reagent.
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    Zinc stress and ROS and RNS metabolism of roots

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient naturally present in soils, but anthropogenic activities can lead to accumulation in the environment and resulting damage to plants. Heavy metals such as Zn can induce oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), which can reduce growth and yield in crop plants. […] More

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