Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae) is a functional androdioecious tree with synchronous growth of flowers and fruits during the reproductive stage, which induces a reproductive resource trade-off between male and female functions in hermaphroditic flowers. Carbohydrates are the basic reproductive resources, and Yang et al. compare the carbohydrate content, gene expression related to carbohydrate metabolism, and carbohydrate transport between male anthers and hermaphroditic anthers.
Resource allocation tends to favour female function in hermaphroditic flowers to ensure reproduction, while the hermaphroditic pollen viability is significant lower than the male pollen viability. This guarantees the maintenance of functional androdioecy in T. sinensis.
Yang, K., Zhou, X., Wang, Y., Feng, H., Ren, X., Liu, H., & Liu, W. (2017). Carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation during anther development in an androdioecious tree, Tapiscia sinensis. Annals of Botany. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcx094