The characteristics of the breeding systems of woody bamboo species are not well defined, although this knowledge is important for research on the genetic improvement and conservation of bamboo forests. A recent study published in AoB PLANTS by Chen et al. is the first report on variations in the breeding systems of mass and sporadically flowering bamboo populations. The results demonstrate that two Dendrocalamus species have a mixed mating system with self-compatibility, predominant outcrossing, and no agamospermy. Pollen limitation and scarcity of wild pollinators influence sexual reproduction in sporadically flowering populations of both species.