This review article summarises the molecular mechanisms of the antiviral immune system in plants and reports the latest breakthroughs relating to plant defence against viruses. Particular attention is given to the immune receptors and transduction pathways in antiviral innate immunity that are involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity, effector-triggered immunity and the translational control branch of the NIK1-mediated antiviral signalling, as well as to the adaptive RNA silencing mechanism.
Calil and Fontes conclude that plant defence and virulence strategies co-evolve and co-exist; hence, disease development is largely dependent on the extent and rate at which these opposing signals emerge in host and non-host interactions. A deeper understanding of plant antiviral immunity may facilitate innovative biotechnological, genetic and breeding approaches for crop protection and improvement.
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