Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash cultivar-groups, the zucchini is today the most cosmopolitan but it is also the newest, having been traced to Milan, 1901. Lust and Paris collected and searched books on agriculture and cookery dating from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy.
By 1600, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items in Italian kitchens. These elongate squash probably refer to the cocozelles of southern and central Italy. The agricultural books by Cantoni (1855) and Tamaro (1892) suggest that the other elongate Italian squash, the zucchini, originated in northern Italy during the mid-nineteenth century.
Teresa A. Lust, Harry S. Paris, 2016, 'Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan', Annals of Botany, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 53-69 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcw080