Floral traits attracting pollinators may also attract seed predators; however, evidence for conflicting selection on such traits remains scarce. One could expect that such selection generated by pollinators and seed predators varies geographically.
Examining multiple populations across a geographic mosaic of environments and floral variation, Sun et al. investigate female reproductive success in a bumblebee-pollinated subalpine herb, Pedicularis rex, in which tubular flowers are subtended by cupular bracts holding rain water. They found that plants experienced conflicting selection: those with flowers that were more exserted beyond the water-holding bracts were better pollinated, but also suffered more seed predation.
Shi-Guo Sun, W. Scott Armbruster, Shuang-Quan Huang, 2016, 'Geographic consistency and variation in conflicting selection generated by pollinators and seed predators', Annals of Botany, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 227-237 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcw097