Correlated polymorphism in cytotype and sexual system

Polyploidy has important effects on plant reproductive systems and previously has been implicated in the evolution of dimorphic reproductive strategies.

Populations of <em>Lycium californicum</em>
Populations of Lycium californicum included in this study; open circles represent diploid, cosexual populations and closed circles tetraploid, dimorphic populations (see Miller et al. for more details).

Miller et al. use flow cytometry, observations of pollen production, and morphological measurements to document the perfect association of tetraploidy with gender dimorphism (or diploidy with cosexuality) across 36 populations spanning the geographic range. Molecular sequence data strongly confirm the monophyly of Lycium californicum, and character mapping suggests that tetraploid-dimorphic populations have arisen twice independently and in concert. Interestingly, the distribution of tetraploid-dimorphic populations is restricted to populations in Arizona and the Baja California peninsula, and may be associated with harsh environmental conditions

Reference List

Jill S. Miller, Ambika Kamath, Brian C. Husband, Rachel A. Levin, 2015, ' Correlated polymorphism in cytotype and sexual system within a monophyletic species, Lycium californicum ', Annals of Botany, p. mcv167