Direct and reverse pollen-mediated gene flow between GM rice and red rice weed

13042-TR3The potential risks of genetically modified crops must be identified before their commercialization. In this context, several studies have reported the transfer of transgenes from transgenic rice to red rice weed. However, gene flow also occurs in the opposite direction, resulting in transgenic seeds that have incorporated the traits of wild red rice. In a new study in AoB PLANTS, Serrat et al. found that this reverse flow was higher than direct gene flow, but that transgenic seeds carrying wild genes remained in the spike and were thus mostly removed at harvesting. Nevertheless, this phenomenon must be considered in fields used for elite seed production and in developing countries where there is a risk of increasing GM red rice weed infestation.